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- Botanical Name: Mangifera indica
- Synonyms: Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae)
- Common Name: Mango
- Seeds collection period: April-June
- Seeds longevity: 1-6 month
Mangifera indica is a large evergreen tree to 20 m tall with a dark green, umbrella-shaped crown. Trunk stout, 90 cm in diameter; bark brown, smoothish, with many thin fissures; thick, becoming darker, rough and scaly or furrowed; branchlets rather stout, pale green and hairless. Inner bark light brown and bitter. A whitish latex exudes from cut twigs and a resin from cuts in the trunk. Leaves alternate, simple, leathery, oblong-lanceolate, 16-30 x 3-7 cm, on flowering branches, up to 50 cm on sterile branches, curved upward from the midrib and sometimes with edges a little wavy. Young leaves red, aging to shiny dark green above, lighter below, with yellow or white venation; petioles 4.5 cm long, striate and swollen at the base. Inflorescence 16 cm or more in length, a much-branched panicle bearing many very small (4 mm) greenish-white or pinkish flowers.
- Food: Mango is cultivated for the fruit, which can be eaten in 3 distinct ways, depending largely on the cultivar: unripe (mature green, very popular in Thailand and the Philippines), ripe (the common way to enjoy mango throughout the world), and processed (at various stages of maturity, in the form of pickles or chutneys, dried slices, canned slices in syrup, juice and puree or paste). The fruit is surrounded by golden, juicy flesh, rich in vitamins A and C. The green fruit is also used to flavour fish and meat dishes in the same way as tamarind and other sour fruits. In India, the kernels are important as a famine food, but the astringency has to be removed by boiling, roasting and soaking them for a long time. Young leaves are cooked as a vegetable.
- Medicine: Charred and pulverized leaves make a plaster to remove warts and also act as a styptic. Seeds are used to treat stubborn colds and coughs, obstinate diarrhoea and bleeding piles. The bark is astringent, homeostatic and antirheumatic.
- Timber: Heartwood is pale yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, darkening on exposure, not clearly demarcated from the pale yellowish-brown sapwood. Grain somewhat wavy, texture moderately coarse; freshly cut wood is scentless. The wood is used for many purposes, including indoor construction, meat-chopping blocks, furniture, carpentry, flooring, boxes, crates and boat building.